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Zoroastrian Heritage

Author: K. E. Eduljee

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Zoroastrian Creed


"On three noble ideals be ever intent:
The good thought well thought,
The good word well spoken,
The good deed well done."

Zoroastrian Way, Purpose and Goal of Life

Way of Life

Amesha Spentas

Eternal Enlightenment - Ageless Wisdom

• The way of life suggested by Zoroastrianism is based on achieving six ideals:
  ‥ a good mind: a positive attitude and gaining wisdom
  ‥ principled living: honesty, honest work, helpfulness, moderation and balance
  ‥ independence: self-reliance and leadership
  ‥ serenity and happiness
  ‥ wholeness: healthy and holistic living
  ‥ an undying spirit.
• Included in the ideal of independence is autonomy: not being beholden to anyone, not being a slave to any dogma, and having the sovereignty to make free and independent decisions - all within the self-elected bounds of ethical values, goodness, and not causing harm to others. The ideal of self-reliance is balanced with helping the less fortunate maintain their independence and dignity.
• This way of life gives effect and meaning to the creed: to commit to a life based on good thoughts, good words and good deeds.
• The effectiveness of a person's beliefs is demonstrated in one's deeds. While praying helps to reaffirm beliefs, a life based on good deeds is prayer in action. Our lives are the temples of our souls.
In short:
• Zoroastrianism lights the path towards an active, meaningful life grounded in wisdom, goodness and wellness.

Purpose of Life

Living as an Ashavan

Goodness in Action

The purpose of life is to work towards achieving the best existence we can envision. Working to achieve the best existence includes striving to achieve individual excellence and excellence for all; working tirelessly and diligently to help build a world free from want, fear, and evil; preserving and protecting the environment.

Goal in Life

Ushta & Armaiti

Abiding Happiness, Spiritual Resplendence, Peace & Serenity

The goal of our lives is to achieve abiding happiness, spiritual resplendence and peace: humanity at peace with itself and an individual at peace with oneself. An expression of abiding peace is serenity.

Goal of Life

Vahishtem Anghuim & Frasho-Kereti
The Best Existence & An Ideal Future
The goal of life on earth is the best existence.

Quotes from Zoroastrian Texts

• "Happiness comes to them who bring happiness to others."
• "Abiding happiness and peace is theirs who choose goodness for its own sake - without expectation of any reward."
• "A thousand people cannot convince one by words to the extent that one person can convince a thousand by action."
• Zarathushtra: "With an open mind, seek and listen to all the highest ideals. Consider the most enlightened thoughts. Then choose your path, person by person, each for oneself."


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Introduction to Zoroastrianism


Legend of the Grain of Wisdom

Overview Simplified: What is Zoroastrianism?
(without references)

Overview Expanded: What is Zoroastrianism?
(with references & more Avestan names)

- Beliefs & Philosophy

- Creation, Existence & Coexistence

- Moderation

- Wisdom & Choice, Free Will, Reason

- Spirit, Soul, Spiritual Components

- Concepts of Time

- Fravashi. Khvarenah. Farohar or Fravahar

- Spiritual Quest

- Goal in Life - Ushta

- God, Ahura Mazda

- Amesha Spentas - Eternal Beneficent Brilliance

- Way of Life & Ethos

- Enlightenment, Ageless Wisdom

- Environment

- Lush Gardens - Paradise

- Religious Texts. Avesta & Zand

- Mathra / Manthra

- Traditional Name of the Religion

- Labels Placed on Zoroastrianism

- Eternal Flame

Zarathushtra / Zoroaster

Understanding Zoroastrianism &

Einstein & Zoroastrianism on God and Existence

Zoroastrian Ethics by MA Buch (pdf)

Olympic Flame & Zoroastrianism. Shared Values

Western Views & Zoroastrianism

- Post Classical Western Authors & Views

- Western Views on Aryans

Friedrich Nietzsche

- Thus Spake Zarathustra (text)

- Thus Spake Zarathustra videos

Zoroastrian Sects

- Mazdak & Mazdakism

- Post 650CE Revolutionary Sects

- Babak Khorramdin

R. C. Zaehner on Zurvan

- Varieties of Zurvanism

- Classical Zurvanism

- Zurvan

Zoroastrian Demographics

Demographics. Group Names

- Dinyar Patel: Demographic Crisis

Arts, Food & Culture

BBC's Taste Of Iran Videos

Western Composers & Zoroastrianism

Avestan Calligraphy video

Fire of Spring -
  Omar Khayyam Selections

Persian Gardens

Heritage Legacy

Aryan Trade

Sogdian Trade. Silk Roads. China

Boteh (Paisley)

Termeh, Heritage Fabric

Gara Sari

Kareez (Qanat) Water Distribution

- Irani Cafes & Bakeries of India

- Zoroastrians of India. Parsees & Iranis - Old Photos

Persian Gardens

Worship - Prayer

Worship Introduction

Prayer - Manthra

Healing Prayer

Early Worship

Fire - Eternal Flame

Fire & Light

Eternal Flame

Priests & Cermonies



Liturgical Ceremonies

Articles of Faith

Sudrah/Sudre/Sudreh and Kusti/Kushti

Sace / Ses Ceremonial Tray

Places of Worship - Temples

Outdoor Worship. Khorog Tajikistan

Early Fire Houses and Temples

- Chahar-Taqi Design

- Temple Ruins at Ani, Turkey

- Temple at Surakhani, Azerbaijan

- Azargoshasb Temple Site, West Azerbaijan

Modern Fire Temples

- Atash Bahram

- Agiary, Darbe Mehr

Pilgrimage Sites

Yazd, Iran

- Pir-e Sabz / Chak-Chak

- Seti Pir

- Pir-e Naraki

- Pir-e Banu

- Pir-e Narestaneh

- Pir-e Herisht

- Cypress at Abarkuh / Abarqu

Udvada, India

Scriptures - Avesta & Language

Avesta Texts

Avesta Compilation & Destruction

Scripture Selections

Gatha Composition by M. Schwartz (pdf)


Avestan, Iranian, Persian Languages


Old Persian Discovery & Decipherment

Dr. Karanjia's Teach Yourself Avestan (pdf)

Dari - Farudi & Toosarvand (pdf)

Ceremonies. Rites of Passage

Liturgical Ceremonies

Purification, Nahan, Achu Michu, Esfand, Evil Eye

Sace / Ses Ceremonial Tray

Navjote, Sudreh Pooshi. Initiation

Sudrah/Sudre/Sudreh and Kusti/Kushti

Jashan / Jashne - Thanksgiving Ceremonies


- Indian Weddings

- Yazdi Iranian Weddings

- Modern Iranian Weddings

Funeral Customs

- Fate of the Soul. Eschatology

- Death Ceremonies

- Mortuaries, Methods, Towers of Silence

- Ossuaries

Festivals. Calendar

New Year - Nowruz

- Pre-Nowruz Festivities

- Nowruz Day Table & Customs

Fire of Spring - Omar Khayyam

New Year's Eve - Pateti

Gahambar / Gahanbar -
    Building Community

Jashne Sadeh at Fire & Light

Jashne Tirgan at Calendar Grid

Jashne Yalda at Calendar Grid

Annual Festivals Calendar


365-Day Calendar Grid

Monthly Calendar Grids

Pithavala's Zoroastrian Year (pdf)

Ancient Healing

Zoroastrian Healing Concepts

Baresman (Barsom)

Haoma (Hom)

Healing Prayer

Useful Plants of Iran (pdf file)

Persian Gardens

Early History
Avestan Aryan Nations


- Dawn of History. Early Peoples

- Cave Dwellings of Old Iran

- Cave Dwelling of Shanidar

- Prehistoric Sites - Iran & Environs

- Jiroft - Historical Site

- Nisaya (Nisa). Anau


- Aryan Prehistory

- Legendary History

- Aryan Religions & Wars

- Aryan Homeland in Scripture

- Aryan Trade

- Aryan Homeland Location

- Western Views on Aryans

Pamir-Badakshan Region

- Pamiri Houses

- Pamiri Historical Sites

Turan & Sugd (Sogdiana)

- Turan

- Sogdian Trade. Silk Roads. China

- Sugd (Uzbekistan)

- Sugd (Tajikistan)

Mouru (Margiana)

- Gonur

- Merv

Bakhdhi (Bactria)

- Ai Khanum

- Sheberghan & Yemshi Tepe

- Talayeh Tepe / Tillya Tepe

Nisaya (Nisa). Anau

Parthava (Parthia)

- Region & People

- Historical Milestones

- Historical Places

Haroyu (Aria)

Khvarizem (Chorasmia)

- Location. Saka. Turks

- Dakhma & Kalas

- Ayaz Kalas

- Fire Temples & Kalas

Varkana (Hyrcania)

Saka. Fergana, Scythia, Turks

- Saka, Pathia, Dahi, Sistan, Scythia

- Nomads, Predators, Paraetaceni

- Tigrakhauda, Haumavarga, Fergana, Women

- Paradarya, Turks, Turan

Dahi (Dahistan)

- Ancient Dahi & Location

- Dahistan & Misriyan

Far Eastern Lands

- Tashkurgan, Khotan, Tochari

- Phryni & Seres

- Kushan

- Chionites

- Heptalon / Hephthalite

Ranghaya & Western Aryan Lands

- Ranghaya & Kurdistan

- Mitanni

- Hittites

- Hittite Mitanni Treaty

The Missing Years

Urmia, N. Zagros (Azerbaijan)

- Azerbaijan, Urmia, N.Zagros

- Azargoshasb Temple Site

- Temple at Surakhani, Azerbaijan

- Kandovan Cave Village Introduction

- Kandovan Cave Village Photo Tour

Zagros, Parsua

- Kassites

Median & Persian History

Mada - Medes & Media

Early Persian & Achaemenian History

Cyrus the Great

- Pasargadae

Cambyses II & Gaumata

Darius I, the Great

Persepolis, Achaemenian Capital

- Gate & Hall

- Palace

- Destruction

- Videos - Persepolis Reconstructed

Videos - Achaemenian Empire

Sassanian History

- Nigin Miri's Sassanian Fars (pdf)

Naqsh-e Rustam Historical Site

- Achaemenians Tombs & Sassanian Reliefs

Behistun Historical Site

Susa Historical Site

Rulers - Timelines

Iran and Persia - The Same?

Greek Persian Connections

- Legendary Connections

- Achaemenian Era Relations & Wars

Post 650 CE History

Arabs & Resistance to Arabs

- Early Islamic History - Prelude to the Arab Invasion of Iran Shahr

- Fight & Flight - Iranian Resistance to the Arabs

- Abu Muslim - Zoroastrian Enigma

- Revolutionary Zoroastrian Sects

- Babak Khorramdin

Conditions for Zoroastrian in Post Arab Iran

- Conditions 650-1400s

- Conditions 650-1400s

- Conditions 1500s-1800s

- Renaissance. Benefactors

- Parsi Assistance

Parsees & Parsi History

Early Parsi History

- Escape from Iran

- Landing & Settlement at Sanjan

- Destruction of Sanjan

Settlement of India's Westcoast

Settlement of Konkan Thana

Parsees & Surat's Development

Hodivala's Studies in Parsi History (pdf)

Karaka's The Parsees (pdf)

Karaka's History of the Parsis Vol. II (pdf)

Dosabhoy Framjee: Parsees, Their History, Manners, Customs, and Religion (pdf)

Parsees: National Geographic 1905 (pdf)

History - Modern Regions

Azerbaijan, Urmia, N. Zagros

- Temple at Surakhani, Azerbaijan

- Azargoshasb Temple Site

- Kandovan - Troglodyte Village


- History & Zoroastrian Connections

- Trade, Traders & Travellers

- People & Places. Pg 1 incl. Minab, Old Hormuz

- People & Places. Pg 2 incl. Hormuz Island,
  Nature's Colour Palette Yemen, Oman

Kerman Region

  - Kerman Region. History. Land

  - Maymand - Troglodyte Village

  - Jiroft Kerman Historical Site

Khorasan / Kuhistan

- Kuhistan

Yazd Region

- Yazd Region. History. Land. Yazd City

  - Innovative Technologies

  - Zoroastrianism in Yazd

  - Yazd Schools. Markerabad

Tajikistan Region

Uzbekistan Region

Turkmenistan Region

Present Cave Dwellings

- Kandovan Cave Village Introduction

- Kandovan Cave Village Photo Tour

- Maymand - Troglodyte Village


Ferdowsi & His Work

Shahnameh Manuscripts

Shahnameh's Characters

The Heroes - Story in Brief

Shahnameh in English


Greek Classics


Herodotus' Histories

Herodotus on Persians

Herodotus on Scythians

Xenophon's Anabasis

Xenophon's Cyropaedia

Ptolemy Bk. 6

Parthian Stations by Isidorus

The Persians by Aeschylus

History of Persia

Jackson's Persia Past Present (pdf file)

Sykes' History of Persia Vol 1 (pdf file)

Sykes' History of Persia Vol 2 (pdf file)

Markham's History of Persia (pdf file)

Rawlinson: Seven Great Monarchies

Ragozin: Media Babylon Persia & Avesta (pdf)


Friedrich Nietzsche

- Thus Spake Zarathustra (text)

- Thus Spake Zarathustra videos

Zoroastrian Ethics by MA Buch (pdf)

Western Authors & Zoroastrianism

Darmesteter Introduction

- Goethe's Parsi Nameh

- Helen Gerth: Zoroastrians on the Internet

Martin Haug on Zoroastrianism (pdf)

- Essays: History, Grammar, Avesta (pdf)

- Lecture: Yasna 45 (pdf)

Jackson's Persia Past Present (pdf file)

Other References

Map Gallery

Prehistoric Ages. Categories of Time

Astrology & Bundahishn (pdf)

Articles & Monographs

Yalda & Christmas
Farohar Motif-Complete
Farohar Motif-Abridged
Winter Festivals
Madame Cama-Abridged
Madame Cama-Complete
Yalda Christmas Mithra-Abridged
Yalda Christmas Mithra-Complete

Resources & Links

Scriptures and other web resources