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Zoroastrian Heritage

Author: K. E. Eduljee

Page 2. 365-Day Fasli-Bastani/Gregorian Perpetual Calendar Grid

Correlates Zoroastrian Fasli Calendar dates with the Gregorian Calendar


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» Page 2: 365-Day Fasli-Bastani/Gregorian Calendar Grid

» Page 3: Zoroastrian/Gregorian Monthly Calendar - Fasli, Shenshai & Kadmi

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Zoroastrian Fasli and Gregorian Calendar

Note: The Gregorian Calendar uses a combination of names and numbers, while the Zoroastrian calendar uses religiously significant names.
Days in colour are days of special significance. Click for an explanation noted below the grid.

(Click colour boxes for explanations below):  Nowruz-New Year's Day  Jashne / Parab days  Sadeh  Rapithwan  Khordad Sal  Gahanbar / Gahambar Farvardigan/Muktad
Month (Mah)

Rapithwan above ground months: Ground waters cooler than surface waters
e.g. deep well waters are cooler than pond waters

Rapithwan below ground months: Ground waters warmer than surface
waters e.g. deep well waters are warmer than pond waters

Day (Ruz/Roj)* 1.Fravardin 2.Ardibehesht 3.Khordad 4.Tir 5.Amordad 6.Shahrivar 7.Meher 8.Aban 9.Adar 10.Dae 11.Bahman 12.Aspandmard

Seasons

Spring

Summer

Autumn

Winter

Week 1 (7 days). * 'ruz' is Persian and 'roj' is Guajarati for 'day'
1. Hormazd M 21Nowruz April 20 May 20 June 19 July 19 August 18 Sept 17 Oct 17 Nov 16 16Daegan Jan 15 Feb 14
2. Bahman March 22 April 21 May 21 June 20 July 20 August 19 Sept 18 Oct 18 Nov 17 Dec 17 16Bahmangan Feb 15
3. Ardibehesht March 23 22Ardibeheshtgan May 22 June 21 July 21 August 20 Sept 19 Oct 19 Nov 18 Dec 18 Jan 17 Feb 16
4. Shahrivar March 24 April 23 May 23 June 22 July 22 21Shahrivargan Sept 20 Oct 20 Nov 19 Dec 19 Jan 18 Feb 17
5. Aspandmard March 25 April 24 May 24 June 23 July 23 August 22 Sept 21 Oct 21 Nov 20 Dec 20 Jan 19 18 Esfandgan
6. Khordad 26Khordad Sal April 25 25Khordadgan June 24 July 24 August 23 Sept 22 Oct 22 Nov 21 Dec 21 Jan 20 Feb 19
7. Amordad March 27 April 26 May 26 June 25 25Amordadgan August 24 Sept 23 Oct 23 Nov 22 Dec 22 Jan 21 Feb 20
Week 2 (7 days)
8. Dae-pa-Adar March 28 April 27 May 27 June 26 July 26 August 25 Sept 24 Oct 24 Nov 23 23Daegan-Adar Jan 22 Feb 21
9. Adar March 29 April 28 May 28 June 27 July 27 August 26 Sept 25 Oct 25 24Azargan Dec 24 Jan 23 Feb 22
10. Aban March 30 April 29 May 29 June 28 July 28 August 27 Sept 26 26Abangan Nov 25 Dec 25 24Sadeh-Kerman Feb 23
11. Khorsheed March 31 30Maidyozarem May 30 29Maidyoshem July 29 August 28 Sept 27 Oct 27 Nov 26 26Zarthosht Diso Jan 25 Feb 24
12. Mah April 1 May 1 May 31 Jun 30 July 30 August 29 Sept 28 Oct 28 Nov 27 Dec 27 Jan 26 Feb 25
13. Tir 2Sizdah-Bedar May 2 June 1 July 1Tirgan July 31 August 30 Sept 29 Oct 29 Nov 28 Dec 28 Jan 27 Feb 26
14. Gosh April 3 May 3 June 2 July 2 August 1 August 31 Sept 30 Oct 30 Nov 29 Dec 29 Jan 28 Feb 27
Week 3 (8 days)
15. Dae-pa-Meher April 4 May 4 June 3 July 3 August 2 Sept 1 Oct 1 Oct 31 Nov 30 30Daegan-Meher Jan 29 Feb 28
16. Meher April 5 May 5 June 4 July 4 August 3 Sept 2 2Mehergan Nov 1 Dec 1 31Maidyarem 30Sadeh-Iran March 1Leap Year
17. Sroosh April 6 May 6 June 5 July 5 August 4 Sept 3 Oct 3 Nov 2 Dec 2 Jan 1 Jan 31 March 2
18. Rashne April 7 May 7 June 6 July 6 August 5 Sept 4 Oct 4 Nov 3 Dec 3 Jan 2 Feb 1 March 3
19. Farvardin 8Farvardingan May8 June 7 July 7 August 6 Sept 5 Oct 5 Nov 4 Dec 4 Jan 3 Feb 2 March 4
20. Bahram April 9 May 9 June 8 July 8 August 7 Sept 6 Oct 6 Nov 5 Dec 5 Jan 4 Feb 3 March 5
21. Ram April 10 May 10 June 9 July 9 August 8 Sept 7 Oct 7 Nov 6 Dec 6 Jan 5 Feb 4 March 6
22. Govad April 11 May 11 June 10 July 10 August 9 Sept 8 Oct 8 Nov 7 Dec 7 Jan 6 Feb 5 March 7
Week 4 (8 days)
23. Dae-pa-Din April 12 May 12 June 11 July 11 August 10 Sept 9 Oct 9 Nov 8 Dec 8 7Daegan Din Feb 6 March 8
24. Din April 13 May 13 June 12 July 12 August 11 Sept 10 Oct 10 Nov 9 Dec 9 Jan 8 Feb 7 March 9
25. Ashishvangh April 14 May 14 June 13 July 13 August 12 Sept 11 Oct 11 Nov 10 Dec 10 Jan 9 Feb 8 March 10
26. Ashtad April 15 May 15 June 14 July 14 August 13 12Paitishem 12Ayathrem Nov 11 11Sadeh-Yazd Jan 10 Feb 9 Farvardigan/Muktad
27. Asman April 16 May 16 June 15 July 15 August 14 Sept 13 Oct 13 Nov 12 Dec 12 Jan 11 Feb 10 March 12 fm
28. Zamyad April 17 May 17 June 16 July 16 August 15 Sept 14 Oct 14 Nov 13 Dec 13 Jan 12 Feb 11 March 13 fm
29. Mahraspand April 18 May 18 June 17 July 17 August 16 Sept 15 Oct 15 Nov 14 Dec 14 Jan 13 Feb 12 March 14 fm
30. Aneran April 19 May 19 June 18 July 18 August 17 Sept 16 Oct 16 Nov 15 Dec 15 Jan 14 Feb 13 March 15 fm
Intercalary / Gatha Days (see explanation on page 1). They are also called the Panjeh or Muktad (last five of ten Muktad days)
1. Ahunavad   Mar 16Hamaspathmaidyem      fm
2. Ushtavad   March 17      fm
3. Spentamad   March 18      fm
4. Vohishathra   March 19      fm
6. Vahistoish During leap years, this last Gatha day is repeated resulting in a total of six Gatha days. The leap day is called Avardad-sal-Gah. Leap Year March 20      fm

Grid colour key: explanations of days with special significance:

Colour Explanation
  Nowruz Jashne (Festival) of Nowruz - New Year's day festival, the spring equinox.
  Jashne / Parab jashne /jashn / jashan and parab are festivals where the name of the month and day coincide. Two, Tirgan and Mehergan, are particularly popular community-wide celebrations that mark the quarter and half-year.
  - Farvardingan Jashne (Festival) of Farvardingan or Froodog, April 8, remembrance day for the fravashis and souls of the departed. Also see Farvardigan days, the ten days defore Nowruz and which are also days of remembrance
  - Ardibeheshtgan Jashne (Festival) of Ardibeheshtgan, April 22, celebrates good order, cleanliness, purity and truth.
  - Khordadgan Jashne (Festival) of Khordadgan, May 25, celebrates water as an element of creation: the river, lake, sea and ocean and other waters. Khordad is the modern form of the Avestan Amesha Spenta Haurvatat wholeness and excellence
  - Tirgan Jashne (Festival) of Tirgan, July 1, a ten-day quarter year festival, celebrating the border dispute settlement between Iran and Turan during the reigns of their kings Manuchehr and Afrasiab respectively. The Avesta's Tir Yasht 6 or 8.6 briefly refers to Erekhsha (Arash in modern Persian), greatest archer among the Aryans, who shot an arrow from Mount Khshaotha to Mount Khvanvant. Middle Persian Zoroastrian Pahlavi texts expand on the legend.

Post Arab authors further expanded on the legend (recounted variously by al-Biruni, al-Tabari, Ebn al-Atir, Gardizi, Gorar, Mojmal, Maqdesi, Gorgani, Talebi and Balami). According to one version of the modern legend, after an epic battle, the two kings Manuchehr and Afrasiab agreed that the border between their kingdoms would be demarcated by the spot where an arrow (tir) shot from the top of a mountain (Mount Damavand according to Balami but various other locations in other texts) landed. According to Biruni, the angel Esfandarmad (Spenta Aramaiti) instructed Manuchehr to prepare a special bow and arrow whose wood, feather, and iron arrow-head (cf. Gorar p. 183) were taken from a designated forest, eagle, and mine. Manuchehr then appointed the pahlavan Arash-e Kamangir (or Kamaangir. Also Arash-e Sewatir) the archer to the task. Arash climbed the heights, stripped naked and announced that he would sacrifice his life in the deed (cf. Biruni), faced north and then pouring his life-force into the effort, launched his arrow. The arrow shot by Arash at dawn on the day of Tir in the month of Tir, rose high into the sky, flew until noon and landed striking a walnut (cf. Biruni) tree near the Jihun (also spelt Gihon, Jayhun, Gaihoon) River which then became the border. The Jihun is identified with the Amu Darya or Oxus, the border between Ancient Airan and Sugd.

Another version of the legend states Iran had been occupied for eight years by Afrasiab the terrible and during this time it did not rain in throughout the realm. Afrasiab consulted the astrologers and Zu Tahmasp replied that in occupying Iran, Afrasiab had broken a covenant established by King Feridoon when he had divided the first and vast Iranian empire between his three sons, each to rule autonomously and in peace. Turan he assigned to be ruled by his eldest son Tur and Iran by his son Iraj. Because Afrasiab had sinned, it would not rain until Afrasiab left Iran and retired behind a border to be established by the landing point of an arrow shot by Tahmasp. Afrasiab agreed and on the day of Tir in the month of Tir, Zu Tahmasp with the name of God on his lips sought divine providence and launched his arrow. Thereupon Afrasiab took his armies and withdrew from the land of Iran. On the day of Govand, nine days after the day of Tir, the skies opened and the parched lands were watered and its rivers began to flow. There was much rejoicing and the people swam in the rivers and ran out into the rain splashing each other with water which they do to this day. In Iran, every year thereafter, a festival was celebrated with great joy for the ten days from the day of Tir to the day of Govand in the month of Tir. The dasturs of the faith would write a prayer, a Nirang, on a strip of cloth and tie it around the wrists of the faithful which, they removed and threw into lakes and seas on the day of Govand with prayers that all misfortune may likewise be drowned by the waters.

Tir is also the modern name for the star Tishtar or Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. On the day before Tirgan, homes are cleaned and on Tirgan day, as with Nowruz, people wear new clothes and tie rainbow-coloured silk thread or bands around their wrists. Since the 1950s, this legend has been used by Iranians to assert their historic roots and express their desire to be free from non-Iranian tyranny. [Also see Wikipedia and Iranica.]
  - Amordadgan Jashne (Festival) of Amordadgan, July 25, celebrating the creation of plants and vegetables.
  - Shahrivargan Jashne (Festival) of Shahrivargan, August 21, celebrating the creation of the sky and minerals.
  - Mehergan Jashne (Festival) of Mehergan, Oct 2, half year festival, celebrated for six days from Meher ruz / roj. The day is dedicated to the angel Mithra and all the Mithraic qualities: friendship, the word as bond, loyalty, and kindness.
  - Abangan Jashne (Festival) of Abangan, Oct 26, celebrating the creation of water and observed by reciting the Abzoor prayer beside rivers, streams, seas, or oceans.
  - Azargan Jashne (Festival) of Azargan, Nov 24, celebrating the creation of fire.
  - Daegan Jashne (Festival) of Daegan, Dec 16, three-quarter year festival, honouring God as creator, dadvah.
  - Bahmangan Jashne (Festival) of Bahmangan, Jan 16, dedicated to the Amesha Spenta Vohu Mano, the high mind, and celebrates the creation of animals.
  - Esfandgan Jashne (Festival) of Esfandgan, Feb 18, celebrating, dedicated to the Amesha Spenta Armaiti, and celebrates the creation of the earth.
  Sadeh [Also see Sadeh in our page on Fire.] Jashne (Festival) of Sadeh (also Sadé or Sada) or a hundred days celebrates the discovery of how to kindle fire by legendary King Hushang. Iranians in general, celebrate Sadeh on the 10th day of Bahman month, i.e. January 30, 50 days (i.e. hundred days and nights) before Nowruz, March 21. (Sadeh is discussed further in page on fire.) On this day, community groups begin to congregate an hour before sunset, preferably at spot near a stream to begin the festivities. After sunset, outdoor fires are lit in an act of defiance against the cold and darkness of winter as well as the forces of evil led by ahriman. The fire ceremony is similar to the Jashne Azar / Adar preceded by the recitation of the Afringan-e Do Dahman prayers for the blessing for the community, as well as an Atash Niyayesh (the litany to fire). After the rituals, there is great feasting that in Sassanian times included the serving of wine.
  - Sadeh-Yazdi Jashan-e Sadeh / Hiromba, Traditional Yazdi: 100 (sad) days, before Nowruz. However, traditional Yazdis use the Qadimi (ancient) calendar which does not correct, as it should, for the leap year. As a consequence, the festival is now celebrated in April. In the grid above, we note the corrected date.
  - Sadeh-Kermani Jashan-e Sadeh / Hiromba, Traditional Kermani: 100 (sad) days after the Ayathrem gahambar. As with Yazdi Zoroastrians, traditional Kermanis use the Qadimi (ancient) calendar which does not correct, as it should, for the leap year. In the grid above, we note the corrected date.
  Rapithwan Rapithwan begins March 21 ends Oct 16 (the seven months during which the ground waters were cooler than the surface in Airyana Vaeja, the Aryan homeland.)
  Khordad Sal Khordad Sal - Celebration of Zarathushtra's birth. This day also celebrates or commemorates the birth of King Hushang Pishdad, King Tahmuras' defeat of Ahriman and divs, and the distribution of King Feridoon's kingdom amongst his sons, and Afrasiab's defeat by King Kai Khusrau.
  Zarthosht-Diso Zarathushtra's death anniversary (Zarthosht-no-Diso)
  Farvardigan Farvardigan / Muktad days - the ten days before Nowruz dedicated to the remembrance of the fravashis and souls of the departed. Also see Jashne Farvardingan
  Gahanbars: Gahanbars / Gahambars (see below). Agriculture and community-wide food distribution related days:
  - Maidyozarem Maidyozarem (mid-spring) April 30-May 4. The days to mark the time when cattle give birth to their young and yield milk. Farmers also inspect crops sown in late winter or early spring and determine harvest dates. Harvest of winter crops.
  - Maidyoshem Maidyoshem (mid-summer) June 29-July 3. The days marking the season of the mid-summer harvest as well as the sowing of summer crops.
  - Paitishem Paitishem (harvest time) September 12-16 The days marking the season of the harvest of the summer crops.
  - Ayathrem Ayathrem (herding time) Oct 12-16. Marking the end of the Rapithwan months and the need to prepare for the onset of the cold months: the time for the herding of cattle from pastures, the mating of cattle, and the end of annual trade caravans.
  - Maidyarem Maidyarem (mid-year) Dec 31-Jan 4. The time to start preparations for the next years agricultural season.
-Hamaspathmaidyem Hamaspathmaidyem (mid-path of all) March 16-20. Days that mark the end of spring cleaning and the remembrance of the souls of the departed.
  Ivory Leap year intercalary day adjustment: March 1 becomes Feb. 29, March 2 becomes March 1 as so on. The additional day added during leap years is called Avardad. As well, the last Gatha day, Vahistoishish, is repeated resulting in six Gatha days during a leap year.

Gahanbars / Gahambars

Gahanbars / Gahambars celebrate both an aspect of the creation of the world and an agricultural harvest or a communal distribution of food. Each Gahambar lasts for five or six days, during which time the community gathers to share common meals, socialize and distribute food. See the Gahanbar page for a more detailed description of the festivals.


Yazdi Pilgrimage Calendar

Pilgrimage SiteCalendar / Pilgrimage Days
Gregorian Zoroastrian
Pir-e Herisht March 27-31 Mah Farvardin. Ruz Amordad-Khorsheed
Pir-e (Ma) Siti June 14 Mah Khordad. Ruz Ashtad
Pir-e Sabz (Chak-Chak) June 14-18 Mah Khordad. Ruz Ashtad-Mahraspand
Pir-e Narestaneh June 23-27 Mah Tir. Ruz Aspandmard-Adar
Pir-e Banoo July 4-8 Mah Tir. Ruz Meher-Bahram
Pir-e Naraki August 3-7 Mah Amordad. Ruz Meher-Bahram

Forms of Month/Day Names & Meaning

The sequence of day names in Yasna 16 of the Avesta are as follows:
1. Dadvah Ahura Mazda 2. Vohu Manah 3. Asha Vahishta 4. Khshathra Vairya 5. Spenta Armaiti 6. Haurvatat 7. Ameretat
8. Dadvah Ahura Mazda 9. Atar 10. Apo 11. Hvar 12. Mah 13. Tishtrya 14. Geush Urvan
115. Dadvah Ahura Mazda, 16. Mithra, 17. Sraosha, 18. Rashnu, 19. Fravashayo, 20. Verethragna, 21. Raman, 22. Vata
23. Dadvah Ahura Mazda, 24. Daena, 25. Ashi, 26. Arshtat, 27. Asman, 28. Zam, 29. Manthra Spenta, 30. Anaghra Raocha.

The names of the months and days have evolved from the Avestan language in Yasna 16, to Pahlavi, to modern Iranian-Farsi and Indian-Parsi pronunciations.

Month Names
Month No.AvestanPahlaviFarsiParsiTranslation
  1  Fravashi  Farvardin  Farvardin  Farvardin  Guardian angel
  2  Asha Vahishta  Ardwahisht  Ordibehesht  Ardibehesht  God's law, goodness
  3  Haurvatat  Hordad  Khordad  Khordad  Wholeness, perfection
  4  Tishtrya  Tishtar  Tir  Tir  Sirius, brightest star
  5  Ameretat  Amurdad  Mordad  Amordad  Undying
  6  Khshathra Vairya  Shahrewar  Shahrivar  Shahrivar  Dominion
  7  Mithra  Mihr  Meher  Meher  Light
  8  Apo / Aban  Aban  Aban  Avan  Water
  9  Atar  Adar  Azar  Adar  Fire
  10  Dadvah  Dae  Dae  Dae  Creator
  11  Vohu Manah  Vohuman   Bahman  Bahman  High mind
  12  Spenta Armaiti  Spandarmad  Esfand  Aspandard  Equanimity
Day Names
Week/Day No.AvestanPahlaviFarsiParsiTranslation
  1/1  Ahura Mazda  Ohrmazd  Hormozd  Hormazd  God
  2  Vohu Manah  Vohuman   Bahman  Bahman  High mind
  3  Asha Vahishta  Ardwahisht  Ardibehesht  Ardibehesht  God's law, goodness
  4  Khshathra Vairya  Shahrewar  Sharivar  Shehrevar  Dominion
  5  Spenta Armaiti  Spandarmad  Esfand  Aspandard  Equanimity
  6  Haurvatat  Hordad  Khordad  Khordad  Wholeness, perfection
  7  Ameretat  Amurdad  Mordad  Amardad  Undying
  2/8  Dadvah Atar  Dae-pa-Adar  Dae-pa-Adar  Dae-pa-Adar  Creator's day before fire
  9  Atar  Adar  Azar  Adar  Fire
  10  Apo / Aban  Aban  Aban  Avan  Water
  11  Hvar Khshaeta  Khwarshed  Khorsheed  Khorsheed  Sun
  12  Mah  Mah  Mah  Mah  Moon
  13  Tishtrya  Tishtar  Tir  Tir  Sirius, brightest star
  14  Geush Urvan  Gosh  Gosh  Gosh  Soul of Life
  3/15  Dadvah Mithra  Day-pa-Mihr  Dae-pa-Meher  Dae-pa-Meher  Creator's day before light
  16  Mithra  Mihr  Meher  Meher  Light
  17  Sraosha  Srosh  Soroosh  Sroosh  Inner voice
  18  Rashnu  Rashnu  Rashne/Rasti  Rashne  Truth
  19  Fravashi  Farvardin  Farvardin  Farvardin  Guardian angel
  20  Verethraghna  Warharan  Bahram  Bahram  Victory, triumph over evil
  21  Raman  Ram  Ram  Ram  Peace, Joy
  22  Vata  Gowad  Govad  Govad  Wind, atmosphere
  4/23  Dadvah Daena  Day-pa-Den  Dae-pa-Din  Dae-pa-Din  Creator's day before Din
  24  Daena  Den  Din  Din  Discerning faith
  25  Ashi  Ashi  Ard/Ashishvangh  Ard/Ashishvangh  Blessings, rewards
  26  Arshtat  Ashtad  Ashtad  Astad  Rectitude, justice
  27  Asman  Asman  Asman  Asman  Sky
  28  Zam  Zam  Zamyad  Zamyad  Earth
  29  Mathra Spenta  Mahraspand  Mahraspand  Maraspand  Bright manthra
  30  Anaghra Raocha  Anagran  Aneran  Aneran  Endless light

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