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Zoroastrian Heritage

Author: K. E. Eduljee



Rulers of Ancient Iran





Arsacid (Parthian)


Median Timelines

According to Eusebius (e), Herodotus and Ctesias (Deioces united the Median tribes Busae, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, Budii, and Magi):

Reign BCE Ruler Name: Median* / Greek or Latin
*Old Persian
28 yearsArbaces (e)
20 yearsMaudaces (e)
30 yearsSosarmus (e)
30 yearsArtycas (e)
? Other rulers Arbianes and Artseus
?Fravartish I / Phraortes I (or Kyaxares?)
728-675Dahyu-ka (?) / Deiocesson of Kyaxares or Phraortes?
grandson of Deioces?
675-653 Fravartish II / Phraortes II son of Deioces
653-625 ? / Madius - Scythian interregnum
625-585 Hvakhshathra, Uvakhshtra* / Cyaxares
*Khusru / Kaikhusrou (Kurdish / Persian)
son of Phraortes
585-550 Rishti-Vaiga* / Astyages
*Ishtovigu (Persian)
son of Uvakhshtra / Cyaxares
550 Media under Persian king Cyrus II

According to Assyrian cuneiform and local sources:

Reign BCE Ruler Name: Median / Assyrian Lineage
mid 700's-728Kshatrita (ruler of Kar Kashi) / ?
r. 701-665
Dahyu-ka (?) / Daiukku (Elamite Dayaukku)
665/4-633 Fravartish (Pr. Kshatrita) / Kashtaritison of Dayaukku
633-585 Hvakshatra or Uvakshatra / Uksatarson of Fravartish
585-550 Rishti-Vaiga / Ishtumeguson of Uvakshatra
550 Media under Persian king Cyrus II

Achaemenian Timelines

Reign BCE Ruler Name: Persian/Greek or Latin Lineage
 ? - 675 Hakhamanishiya (Hakhmanish)/Achaemenes
675-640 Chishpish (Chispaish)/Teispesson of Hakhamanishiya/Achaemenes
640-590 Ariyaramna/Ariaramnes - founder first lineson of Chishpish/Teispes
640-600 Kurush I/Cyrus I - founder second lineson of Chishpish/Teispes
  ? -  ? Arshama/Arsames - first lineson of Ariyaramna/Ariaramnes
600-559 Kabujiya I (later Kambiz)/Cambyses I - second line   son of Kurush/Cyrus I
559-530 Kurush II/Cyrus II (the Great) - second lineson of Kabujiya/Cambyses I
530-522 Kabujiya II/Cambyses IIson of Kurush/Cyrus II - second line. Murdered his brother Bardiya/Smerdis & committed suicide ending the second line
522Gaumata the MagusPretended to be Bardiya/Smerdis son of Kurush II/Cyrus II. Deposed by Darius I
522-486 Darayavahush/Darius I (the Great) - first linegrandson of Arshama/Arsames &
son of Vishtasp
486-466 Khshayarsha/Xerxes Ison of Darayavahush/Darius I
466-465 Artabanes/
465-425 Artakhshassa/Artaxerxes Ison of Khshayarsha I
425-424 Khshayarsha/Xerxes IIson of Artakhshassa I
424-423 Secydianus/Sogdianusson of Artakhshassa I
423-404 Darayavahush/Darius IIson of Artakhshassa I
404-359 Artakhshassa/Artaxerxes IIson of Darayavahush II
359-338 Artakhshassa/Artaxerxes IIIson of Artakhshassa II
338-336 Arsha/Arses (Artaxerxes IV)son of Artakhshassa III
336-330 Darayavahush/Darius IIIgreat grandsonson of Darayavahush II

Macedonian Timelines

Reign BCE Ruler Name: Greek Lineage
d. 301
Antigonus the one-eye
Alexander's general Seleucus becomes king of the eastern Macedonian empire

Seleucid Timelines

Reign BCE Ruler Name: Greek Lineage
312-280Seleucus I (founder)
280-261Antiochus I Soterson of Seleucus
261-246Antiochus II Theos
246End of Seleucid rule in eastern empire i.e. Bactria + Parthian revolt
246-225Seleucus II
225-223Seleucus III
223-187Antiochus III
209Seleucid's bring Parthia back briefly under their rule
187-175Seleucus IV
175-164/3 Antiochus IV Epiphanes
164/3-162Antiochus V
150-145Alexander Balas
d. 125
Demetrius II Nicator
141Arsacid Mithridates takes Selucia-on-theTigris
140Demetrius II attacks Parthians. Defeated & taken prisoner
129Antiochus VII attacks Parthia but is defeated and killed

Arsacid (Parthian) Timelines

Parthia was an Aryan /Iranian state. Arsacid is the name of a Parthian dynasty founded by Arsaces.

Reign BCE Ruler Name: Parthian/Greek or Latin Lineage
c.247-211 Arshak/Arsaces I (founder)
c.211-191 Arshak/Arsaces II (often called Artabanus I) son of Arsaces I
According to this naming system, the last Arsacid king is Artabanus IV. Otherwise the last king is Artabanus V.
c.191-176 Friapat, Friapatak/Phriapatius grandson of Tirdat/Tiridates (246-211 BCE), son of Arsaces I
185 Arsacid expansion into eastern Iran
c.176-171 Frahata/Phraates I son of Phriapatius
c.171-138 Mithradat(a)/Mithridates I Philhellene son of Phriapatius
144 Mithridates takes Babylon
141 Mithridates takes Selucia-on-theTigris & Media
139 Mithridates takes Persia
re-establishes the old Persian/Iran empire
c.138-127 Frahata/Phraates II son of Phraates I
c.127-124 Ardaban, Artapāna, Ardavan/Artabanus I son of Phriapatius
124-88 Mithradat(a)/Mithridates II opposed by Godarz son of Artabanus I
115 Mithradates II receives envoy from Chinese emperor
106 Trading caravans bring silk to Parthia, take horses to China
c.95-90 Rival Claimant: Godarz/Gotarzes I (in Atropatene c95-87) gransdson of Phriapatius
90-80 co-ruler? Urud, Viroy/Orodes I


95 Parthians sign friendship treaty with Sylla, fixing western frontier as Euphrates
80 Rival Claimant: name unknown
80-70 Name unknown
77-70 Rival Claimant: Santruk/Sinatruces


70-57 Frahata/Phraates III son of Sinatruces
70 Rival Claimant: Darius of Media Atropatene
57-54 Mithradat(a)/Mithridates III (in Atropatene 65-58) son of Phraates III
57-38 Urud, Viroy/Orodes II (in Elymais c56/5-c45) son of Phraates III
53 Orodes defeats Romans and extends empire from Mediterranean to the Indus
51-39 Co-ruler: Pakur/Pacorus I son of Orodes II
d. 2 BCE
Frahata/Phraates IV (in Elymais c35-2) son of Orodes II
29-27 Tiridata, Tirdad/Tiridates I
27-2 Frahata/Phraates IV (restored)
2 BCE-4 CE Frahata/Phraates V or Phraataces son of Phraates IV
Reign CE
4-7 Urud, Viroy/Orodes III


7-12 d.17 Vonun, Vahunam/Vonones I (in Armenia 16-17) opposed by: son of Phraates IV
10-38 Ardaban, Artapāna, Ardavan/Artabanus II (in Atropatene c20-38) opposed by:


35-36 Tiridata, Tirdad/Tiridates II grandson of Phraates IV
38-51 Godarz/Gotarzes II son of Artabanus II
47 Parthians displace northern Sakas in Kandahar
c39-47 Vartan, Vardan, Bardan/Vardanes I son of Artabanus II
50-65 Santruk/Sanabares
51 Vonun, Vahunam/Vonones II (in Atropatene c38 ?-51)


51-78 Valgash/Vologases I opposed by: son of Vonones II
55-58 Vartan, Vardan, Bardan/Vardanes II


77-80 Valgash/Vologeses II opposed by:


78-105 Pacur/Pacorus II opposed by:


80-90 Ardaban, Artapāna, Ardavan/Artabanus III


105-147 Valgash/Vologases III


109-129 Khasrau/Osroes or Chosroes I


116 Parthamaspata/Parthamaspates son of Chosroes I
140 Mithradat(a)/Mithridates IV


140 King, name unknown
147-191 Valgash/Vologeses IV opposed by: son of Mithridates IV
190 Khasrau/Osroes or Chosroes II


191-208 Valgash/Vologeses V the Great (king of Armenia 180-191)


208-228 Valgash/Vologeses VI son of Vologeses V
216-224/6 Ardaban, Artapāna, Ardavan/Artabanus IV (king of Atropatene in 216) son of Vologeses V
224 or 226 Ardaban/Artabanus IV defeated and killed by Sassanian Ardashir I. However, the Arscaids ruled to rule in the western provinces (Seleucia on the Tigris) and struck coins as late as 229 CE. The existing of Vologeses VI is mentioned in some texts.
224-229 Artavazd/Artavasdes a son of Artabanus IV

Sassanian Timelines

Reign CE Ruler Name: Persian Lineage
c200 Sassanian Papak/Babak revolts against Arsacids in Pars
224 or 226 Parthian King Ardaban/Artabanus V battles Papak's son Ardashir, is defeated and killed.
224/6-241 Ardashir (Ardeshir) I (Ardashir-e-Papagan) son of Papak
241-272 Shapur (Shahpur) I son of Ardashir I
272-273 Hormazd I son of Shapur I
273-276 Bahram (Varahran) I son of Ardashir I
276-293 Bahram (Varahran) II son of Bahram I
293 Bahram (Varahran) III son of Hormazd I
293-303 Narses (Naresh) son of Shapur I
303-310 Hormazd II son of Narses
310 Adarnarseh
310-379 Shapur II son of Hormazd II
379-383 Ardashir II son of Hormazd II
383-388 Shapur III son of Shapur II
388-399 Bahram IV son of Shapur II
399-420 Yazdegerd I son of Shapur III
420 Khusrau the Usurper
420-438 Bahram V the Wild Ass son of Shapur III
438-457 Yazdegerd II son of Bahram V
457 Hormazd III son of Yazdegerd II
457-484 Firuz (Piruz) I son of Yazdegerd II
484-488 Balash (Valaksh) son of Yazdegerd II
488-497 Kobad I son of Firuz I
497-499 Zamasp son of Firuz I
499-531 Kobad I (restored) son of Firuz I
531-579 Khusrau I the Just son of Kobad I
579-590 Hormazd IV son of Khusrau I
590 Khusrau II the Victorious son of Hormazd IV
590-591 Bahram VI Chobin the Usurper
591-628 Khusrau II the Victorious (restored)opposed by:
son of Hormazd IV
591-592 Bistam (Vistakhm) the Usurper (in Media)
593 Hormazd (V) the Usurper
628 Kobad II Sheroe son of Khusrau II
628-630 Ardashir III son of Kobad II
630 Shahrbaraz the Usurper
630 Khusrau III son of Hormazd IV
630 Juvansher
630-631 Borandurht (Puranbokht) (Queen) daughter of Khusrau II
631 Gushnasp bandeh son of Hormazd IV
631 Azarmidurht (Queen) daughter of Khusrau II
631-632 Hormazd V (in Nisibis) opposing: grandson of Khusrau II
632 Firuz II grandson of Khusrau II
631 Firuz III Gushnasp
632 Khusrau IV grandson of Khusrau II
632-633 Khusrau V
633 Arab invade Sassanian Iraq
633-649 Yazdegird III grandson of Khusrau II
636 Persian defeat at battle of Qadisiyyah (now in S. Central Iraq)
642 Arabs cross Zagros and invade Persia
642 Persian defeat at battle of Nahavand (near Hamadan)
649 End of Zoroastrian rule in Iran / Persia
651 or 652 Yazdegird III murdered in Merv

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