Page 2. 365-Day Fasli-Bastani/Gregorian Perpetual Calendar Grid
Correlates Zoroastrian Fasli Calendar dates with the Gregorian Calendar
Zoroastrian Fasli and Gregorian Calendar
Note: The Gregorian Calendar uses a combination of names and numbers, while the Zoroastrian calendar uses religiously significant names.
Days in colour are days of special significance. Click for an explanation noted below the grid.
|(Click colour boxes for explanations below):
|| Nowruz-New Year's Day
|| Jashne / Parab days
|| Khordad Sal
|| Gahanbar / Gahambar
Rapithwan above ground months: Ground waters cooler than surface waters
e.g. deep well waters are cooler than pond waters
Rapithwan below ground months: Ground waters warmer than surface
waters e.g. deep well waters are warmer than pond waters
| Week 1 (7 days). * 'ruz' is Persian and 'roj' is Guajarati for 'day'|
| Week 2 (7 days)|
|Week 3 (8 days)
||March 1Leap Year
|Week 4 (8 days)|
||March 12 fm
||March 13 fm
||March 14 fm
||March 15 fm
|Intercalary / Gatha Days (see explanation on page 1). They are also called the Panjeh or Muktad (last five of ten Muktad days)
||During leap years, this last Gatha day is repeated resulting in a total of six Gatha days. The leap day is called Avardad-sal-Gah. Leap Year
Grid colour key: explanations of days with special significance:
||Jashne (Festival) of Nowruz - New Year's day festival, the spring equinox.
| Jashne / Parab
||jashne /jashn / jashan and parab are festivals where the name of the month and day coincide. Two, Tirgan and Mehergan, are particularly popular community-wide celebrations that mark the quarter and half-year.
| - Farvardingan
||Jashne (Festival) of Farvardingan or Froodog, April 8, remembrance day for the fravashis and souls of the departed. Also see Farvardigan days, the ten days defore Nowruz and which are also days of remembrance
| - Ardibeheshtgan
||Jashne (Festival) of Ardibeheshtgan, April 22, celebrates good order, cleanliness, purity and truth.
| - Khordadgan
||Jashne (Festival) of Khordadgan, May 25, celebrates water as an element of creation: the river, lake, sea and ocean and other waters. Khordad is the modern form of the Avestan Amesha Spenta Haurvatat wholeness and excellence
| - Tirgan
||Jashne (Festival) of Tirgan, July 1, a ten-day quarter year festival, celebrating the border dispute settlement between Iran and Turan during the reigns of their kings Manuchehr and Afrasiab respectively. The Avesta's Tir Yasht 6 or 8.6 briefly refers to Erekhsha (Arash in modern Persian), greatest archer among the Aryans, who shot an arrow from Mount Khshaotha to Mount Khvanvant. Middle Persian Zoroastrian Pahlavi texts expand on the legend.
Post Arab authors further expanded on the legend (recounted variously by al-Biruni, al-Tabari, Ebn al-Atir, Gardizi, Gorar, Mojmal, Maqdesi, Gorgani, Talebi and Balami). According to one version of the modern legend, after an epic battle, the two kings Manuchehr and Afrasiab agreed that the border between their kingdoms would be demarcated by the spot where an arrow (tir) shot from the top of a mountain (Mount Damavand according to Balami but various other locations in other texts) landed. According to Biruni, the angel Esfandarmad (Spenta Aramaiti) instructed Manuchehr to prepare a special bow and arrow whose wood, feather, and iron arrow-head (cf. Gorar p. 183) were taken from a designated forest, eagle, and mine. Manuchehr then appointed the pahlavan Arash-e Kamangir (or Kamaangir. Also Arash-e Sewatir) the archer to the task. Arash climbed the heights, stripped naked and announced that he would sacrifice his life in the deed (cf. Biruni), faced north and then pouring his life-force into the effort, launched his arrow. The arrow shot by Arash at dawn on the day of Tir in the month of Tir, rose high into the sky, flew until noon and landed striking a walnut (cf. Biruni) tree near the Jihun (also spelt Gihon, Jayhun, Gaihoon) River which then became the border. The Jihun is identified with the Amu Darya or Oxus, the border between Ancient Airan and Sugd.
Another version of the legend states Iran had been occupied for eight years by Afrasiab the terrible and during this time it did not rain in throughout the realm. Afrasiab consulted the astrologers and Zu Tahmasp replied that in occupying Iran, Afrasiab had broken a covenant established by King Feridoon when he had divided the first and vast Iranian empire between his three sons, each to rule autonomously and in peace. Turan he assigned to be ruled by his eldest son Tur and Iran by his son Iraj. Because Afrasiab had sinned, it would not rain until Afrasiab left Iran and retired behind a border to be established by the landing point of an arrow shot by Tahmasp. Afrasiab agreed and on the day of Tir in the month of Tir, Zu Tahmasp with the name of God on his lips sought divine providence and launched his arrow. Thereupon Afrasiab took his armies and withdrew from the land of Iran. On the day of Govand, nine days after the day of Tir, the skies opened and the parched lands were watered and its rivers began to flow. There was much rejoicing and the people swam in the rivers and ran out into the rain splashing each other with water which they do to this day. In Iran, every year thereafter, a festival was celebrated with great joy for the ten days from the day of Tir to the day of Govand in the month of Tir. The dasturs of the faith would write a prayer, a Nirang, on a strip of cloth and tie it around the wrists of the faithful which, they removed and threw into lakes and seas on the day of Govand with prayers that all misfortune may likewise be drowned by the waters.
Tir is also the modern name for the star Tishtar or Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. On the day before Tirgan, homes are cleaned and on Tirgan day, as with Nowruz, people wear new clothes and tie rainbow-coloured silk thread or bands around their wrists. Since the 1950s, this legend has been used by Iranians to assert their historic roots and express their desire to be free from non-Iranian tyranny. [Also see Wikipedia and Iranica.]
| - Amordadgan
||Jashne (Festival) of Amordadgan, July 25, celebrating the creation of plants and vegetables.
| - Shahrivargan
||Jashne (Festival) of Shahrivargan, August 21, celebrating the creation of the sky and minerals.
| - Mehergan
||Jashne (Festival) of Mehergan, Oct 2, half year festival, celebrated for six days from Meher ruz / roj. The day is dedicated to the angel Mithra and all the Mithraic qualities: friendship, the word as bond, loyalty, and kindness.
| - Abangan
||Jashne (Festival) of Abangan, Oct 26, celebrating the creation of water and observed by reciting the Abzoor prayer beside rivers, streams, seas, or oceans.
| - Azargan
||Jashne (Festival) of Azargan, Nov 24, celebrating the creation of fire.
| - Daegan
||Jashne (Festival) of Daegan, Dec 16, three-quarter year festival, honouring God as creator, dadvah.
| - Bahmangan
||Jashne (Festival) of Bahmangan, Jan 16, dedicated to the Amesha Spenta Vohu Mano, the high mind, and celebrates the creation of animals.
| - Esfandgan
||Jashne (Festival) of Esfandgan, Feb 18, celebrating, dedicated to the Amesha Spenta Armaiti, and celebrates the creation of the earth.
||Jashne (Festival of) Yalda, the three-quarter year festival, marks the winter solstice (start of the solar winter) and the longest night (Shab-e Yalda) of the year. Yalda also celebrates the defeat of the forces of darkness led by ahriman with a festival of lights when torches were kept burning throughout the night. The festival of lights also celebrated the eve of lengthening of the days and the nativity / birth of Mithra. It is said (cf. Farsinet & Pars Times) that on the night of Yalda, ancient Aryans would gather in caves along the mountains of Airyana Vaeja, as 'yar-e ghar' (cave friends), to bear witness to the rising sun at daybreak of the next morning, the start of the havan gah. Yalda symbolizes the inherent duality of winter. The festival is also called Shab-e Chelleh or Cheleh, which is taken to mean the night of the fortieth day before Jashne Sadeh according to the present Iranian national calendar.
||[Also see Sadeh in our page on Fire.] Jashne (Festival) of Sadeh (also Sadé or Sada) or a hundred days celebrates the discovery of how to kindle fire by legendary King Hushang. Iranians in general, celebrate Sadeh on the 10th day of Bahman month, i.e. January 30, 50 days (i.e. hundred days and nights) before Nowruz, March 21. (Sadeh is discussed further in page on fire.) On this day, community groups begin to congregate an hour before sunset, preferably at spot near a stream to begin the festivities. After sunset, outdoor fires are lit in an act of defiance against the cold and darkness of winter as well as the forces of evil led by ahriman. The fire ceremony is similar to the Jashne Azar / Adar preceded by the recitation of the Afringan-e Do Dahman prayers for the blessing for the community, as well as an Atash Niyayesh (the litany to fire). After the rituals, there is great feasting that in Sassanian times included the serving of wine.
| - Sadeh-Yazdi
||Jashan-e Sadeh / Hiromba, Traditional Yazdi: 100 (sad) days, before Nowruz. However, traditional Yazdis use the Qadimi (ancient) calendar which does not correct, as it should, for the leap year. As a consequence, the festival is now celebrated in April. In the grid above, we note the corrected date.
| - Sadeh-Kermani
||Jashan-e Sadeh / Hiromba, Traditional Kermani: 100 (sad) days after the Ayathrem gahambar. As with Yazdi Zoroastrians, traditional Kermanis use the Qadimi (ancient) calendar which does not correct, as it should, for the leap year. In the grid above, we note the corrected date.
||Rapithwan begins March 21 ends Oct 16 (the seven months during which the ground waters were cooler than the surface in Airyana Vaeja, the Aryan homeland.)
| Khordad Sal
||Khordad Sal - Celebration of Zarathushtra's birth. This day also celebrates or commemorates the birth of King Hushang Pishdad,
King Tahmuras' defeat of Ahriman and divs, and the distribution of King Feridoon's kingdom amongst his sons, and Afrasiab's defeat by King Kai Khusrau.
||Zarathushtra's death anniversary (Zarthosht-no-Diso)
||Farvardigan / Muktad days - the ten days before Nowruz dedicated to the remembrance of the fravashis and souls of the departed. Also see Jashne Farvardingan
||Gahanbars / Gahambars (see below). Agriculture and community-wide food distribution related days:
| - Maidyozarem
||Maidyozarem (mid-spring) April 30-May 4. The days to mark the time when cattle give birth to their young and yield milk. Farmers also inspect crops sown in late winter or early spring and determine harvest dates. Harvest of winter crops.
| - Maidyoshem
||Maidyoshem (mid-summer) June 29-July 3. The days marking the season of the mid-summer harvest as well as the sowing of summer crops.
| - Paitishem
||Paitishem (harvest time) September 12-16 The days marking the season of the harvest of the summer crops.
| - Ayathrem
||Ayathrem (herding time) Oct 12-16. Marking the end of the Rapithwan months and the need to prepare for the onset of the cold months: the time for the herding of cattle from pastures, the mating of cattle, and the end of annual trade caravans.
| - Maidyarem
||Maidyarem (mid-year) Dec 31-Jan 4. The time to start preparations for the next years agricultural season.
||Hamaspathmaidyem (mid-path of all) March 16-20. Days that mark the end of spring cleaning and the remembrance of the souls of the departed.
||Leap year intercalary day adjustment: March 1 becomes Feb. 29, March 2 becomes March 1 as so on. The additional day added during leap years is called Avardad. As well, the last Gatha day, Vahistoishish, is repeated resulting in six Gatha days during a leap year.
Gahanbars / Gahambars
Gahanbars / Gahambars celebrate both an aspect of the creation of the world and an agricultural harvest or a communal distribution of food. Each Gahambar lasts for five or six days, during which time the community gathers to share common meals, socialize and distribute food. See the Gahanbar page for a more detailed description of the festivals.
Yazdi Pilgrimage Calendar
|Pilgrimage Site||Calendar / Pilgrimage Days|
| ||Gregorian ||Zoroastrian|
|Pir-e Herisht ||March 27-31 ||Mah Farvardin. Ruz Amordad-Khorsheed|
|Pir-e (Ma) Siti ||June 14 ||Mah Khordad. Ruz Ashtad|
|Pir-e Sabz (Chak-Chak) ||June 14-18 ||Mah Khordad. Ruz Ashtad-Mahraspand|
|Pir-e Narestaneh ||June 23-27 ||Mah Tir. Ruz Aspandmard-Adar|
|Pir-e Banoo ||July 4-8 ||Mah Tir. Ruz Meher-Bahram|
|Pir-e Naraki ||August 3-7 ||Mah Amordad. Ruz Meher-Bahram|
Forms of Month/Day Names & Meaning
The sequence of day names in Yasna 16 of the Avesta are as follows:
1. Dadvah Ahura Mazda 2. Vohu Manah 3. Asha Vahishta 4. Khshathra Vairya 5. Spenta Armaiti 6. Haurvatat 7. Ameretat
8. Dadvah Ahura Mazda 9. Atar 10. Apo 11. Hvar 12. Mah 13. Tishtrya 14. Geush Urvan
115. Dadvah Ahura Mazda, 16. Mithra, 17. Sraosha, 18. Rashnu, 19. Fravashayo, 20. Verethragna, 21. Raman, 22. Vata
23. Dadvah Ahura Mazda, 24. Daena, 25. Ashi, 26. Arshtat, 27. Asman, 28. Zam, 29. Manthra Spenta, 30. Anaghra Raocha.
The names of the months and days have evolved from the Avestan language in Yasna 16, to Pahlavi, to modern Iranian-Farsi and Indian-Parsi pronunciations.
| 1|| Fravashi|| Farvardin|| Farvardin|| Farvardin|| Guardian angel|
| 2|| Asha Vahishta|| Ardwahisht|| Ordibehesht|| Ardibehesht|| God's law, goodness|
| 3|| Haurvatat|| Hordad|| Khordad|| Khordad|| Wholeness, perfection |
| 4|| Tishtrya|| Tishtar|| Tir|| Tir|| Sirius, brightest star|
| 5|| Ameretat|| Amurdad|| Mordad|| Amordad|| Undying|
| 6|| Khshathra Vairya|| Shahrewar|| Shahrivar|| Shahrivar|| Dominion|
| 7|| Mithra|| Mihr|| Meher|| Meher|| Light|
| 8|| Apo / Aban|| Aban|| Aban|| Avan|| Water|
| 9|| Atar|| Adar|| Azar|| Adar|| Fire|
| 10|| Dadvah|| Dae|| Dae|| Dae|| Creator|
| 11|| Vohu Manah|| Vohuman || Bahman|| Bahman|| High mind|
| 12|| Spenta Armaiti|| Spandarmad|| Esfand|| Aspandard|| Equanimity |
| 1/1|| Ahura Mazda|| Ohrmazd|| Hormozd|| Hormazd|| God|
| 2|| Vohu Manah|| Vohuman || Bahman|| Bahman|| High mind|
| 3|| Asha Vahishta|| Ardwahisht|| Ardibehesht|| Ardibehesht|| God's law, goodness|
| 4|| Khshathra Vairya|| Shahrewar|| Sharivar|| Shehrevar|| Dominion|
| 5|| Spenta Armaiti|| Spandarmad|| Esfand|| Aspandard|| Equanimity |
| 6|| Haurvatat|| Hordad|| Khordad|| Khordad|| Wholeness, perfection |
| 7|| Ameretat|| Amurdad|| Mordad|| Amardad|| Undying|
| 2/8|| Dadvah Atar|| Dae-pa-Adar|| Dae-pa-Adar|| Dae-pa-Adar|| Creator's day before fire|
| 9|| Atar|| Adar|| Azar|| Adar|| Fire|
| 10|| Apo / Aban|| Aban|| Aban|| Avan|| Water|
| 11|| Hvar Khshaeta|| Khwarshed|| Khorsheed|| Khorsheed|| Sun|
| 12|| Mah|| Mah|| Mah|| Mah|| Moon|
| 13|| Tishtrya|| Tishtar|| Tir|| Tir|| Sirius, brightest star|
| 14|| Geush Urvan|| Gosh|| Gosh|| Gosh|| Soul of Life|
| 3/15|| Dadvah Mithra|| Day-pa-Mihr|| Dae-pa-Meher|| Dae-pa-Meher|| Creator's day before light|
| 16|| Mithra|| Mihr|| Meher|| Meher|| Light|
| 17|| Sraosha|| Srosh|| Soroosh|| Sroosh|| Inner voice|
| 18|| Rashnu|| Rashnu|| Rashne/Rasti|| Rashne|| Truth|
| 19|| Fravashi|| Farvardin|| Farvardin|| Farvardin|| Guardian angel|
| 20|| Verethraghna|| Warharan|| Bahram|| Bahram|| Victory, triumph over evil|
| 21|| Raman|| Ram|| Ram|| Ram|| Peace, Joy|
| 22|| Vata|| Gowad|| Govad|| Govad|| Wind, atmosphere|
| 4/23|| Dadvah Daena|| Day-pa-Den|| Dae-pa-Din|| Dae-pa-Din|| Creator's day before Din|
| 24|| Daena|| Den|| Din|| Din|| Discerning faith|
| 25|| Ashi|| Ashi|| Ard/Ashishvangh|| Ard/Ashishvangh|| Blessings, rewards|
| 26|| Arshtat|| Ashtad|| Ashtad|| Astad|| Rectitude, justice|
| 27|| Asman|| Asman|| Asman|| Asman|| Sky|
| 28|| Zam|| Zam|| Zamyad|| Zamyad|| Earth|
| 29|| Mathra Spenta|| Mahraspand|| Mahraspand|| Maraspand|| Bright manthra|
| 30|| Anaghra Raocha|| Anagran|| Aneran|| Aneran|| Endless light|
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